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Pannelli solari termici per integrare il riscaldamento degli ambienti

Affinché un sistema solare con collettori termici, oltre che fornire l’acqua calda sanitaria, integri anche il riscaldamento di una casa, è importante sapere che:

1. è necessario che l’abitazione sia dotata di un sistema di riscaldamento a bassa temperatura, realizzato solitamente tramite pannelli radianti (tubi sotto il pavimento o nelle pareti in cui scorre acqua a 30-35°C).

2. la copertura percentuale del fabbisogno di energia termica richiesta per il riscaldamento della casa è tanto maggiore quanto più grande è la superficie dei pannelli solari e la dimensione del serbatoio.

Non è normalmente possibile riscaldare una casa al 100% con i pannelli termici: una caldaia è sempre necessaria, ma la presenza dell’impianto solare permette un consumo molto minore di gas o gasolio.

Schema impianto riscaldamento ambienti

Scopriamo il funzionamento di questi impianti seguendo lo schema.

Il serbatoio solare (A) contiene al suo interno (a “bagnomaria”) un secondo serbatoio a forma di fungo, contenente l’acqua destinata agli usi sanitari. L’acqua in cui è immerso il serbatoio “a fungo” va invece nei tubi del riscaldamento a pavimento (B), riuscendo a riscaldare gli ambienti. Quando il sistema solare non è sufficiente interviene la caldaia tradizionale, che in ogni caso consumerà molto meno.

Perché i sistemi termici vanno abbinati a sistemi a bassa temperatura?

I pannelli solari garantiscono la produzione di acqua calda ad una temperatura media, perfetta per i sistemi radianti a bassa temperatura. I sistemi radianti a pavimento, a parete o a battiscopa sono molto più efficienti di quelli a temperatura ben più alta che sono solitamente presenti nelle case italiane (termosifoni a parete, termoconvettori o fancoil). L’aumento della superficie di scambio termico (centinaia di metri di tubo sotto i pavimenti o dietro i muri) consente infatti l’utilizzo di acqua a 30°-35°C (rispetto ai soliti 60°-70°C tipici dei termosifoni).

È importante sapere che:

1. rimanendo sotto la temperatura corporea non si ha nessun problema alla circolazione sanguigna delle gambe, come invece erroneamente spesso si crede.

2. sistemi di produzione di calore (siano essi caldaie o pannelli solari) lavorano con efficienze migliori, permettendo significativi risparmi nelle bollette.

3. il comfort ambientale consentito da questo tipo di riscaldamento è decisamente migliore di quello che si ha in presenza di termosifoni.

L’abbinamento sistemi di riscaldamento a bassa temperatura e pannelli solari è la soluzione ottimale per un riscaldamento degli ambienti domestici efficiente ed economico.

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